SUMMARY OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (wikipedia)
This article is a summary of Menstraul cycle.
Under this, we shall discuss or summmarize menstrual cycle under the following:
- SITE OF OCCURRENCE
Menstrual cycle is the series of changes that occurs in the uterus( in which the oocyte mature, is ovulated and enters the uterine tube) it is controlled by the hormones secreted during Ovarian cycle.
- SITE OF OCCURANCE:
The Functional Layer ( S.compectum and S. Spongiosum) of the Uterus.
Average Menstrual cycle is 28day. It varies but in 90% women, it ranges between 23 and 35 days.
It occurs in five Phases
1. Menstrual phase
2.proliferative or follicular phase
3.luteal or secretory or Progestational phase
1. MENSTRUAL PHASE:
- It is usually 4-5 days
- Blood escapes from superficial arteries and small pieces of Stroma and glands breakaway.
- The functional layers ( compact and spongy ) of the uterine wall is sloughed off and discarded with the menstrual flow
- The ammout of blood lost is 20-80 ml.
2. PROLIFERATIVE OR FOLLICULAR PHASE:
- It lasts approximately 9 days
- It begins under the influence of Estrogen.
- This stage causes the length in menstruation
- Spiral artery, thickness, Water content, surface epithelium, glands increases gradually.
3. LUTEAL OR SECRETORY PHASE
- It lasts approximately 13days
- It begins by the influence of progesterone
- Glands are wide, tortous and saccular
- Endometrium thickness
- Venous network becomes complex
- Large lacunar develops
- Spiral arteries grow into the superficial compact layers and increasingly coiled.
4. ISCHEMIC PHASE
- It occurs when the oocyte is not fertilized
- Spiral artery is constant
- Endometrium has pale apperance
- Corpus luteum degenerates
- Hormone ( FSH And LH) rate falls
5. PREGNANCY PHASE
- It occurs when fertilization occurs
- Menstrual cycle ceases, luteal phase continues but if pregnancy does not occur, the reproductive cycle normally continues until Menopause.
- Menorrhea: This is normal blood Flow
- Oligomenorrhea: This is infrequent blood flow
- Menorrhagia: This abnormal blood flow
- Anovulatory cycle: under this, ovulation does not occur. The menstrual bleeding occurs but the release of ovum does not occur, this leads to infertility mostly when occur during child bearing period.
- Dysmenorrhea: menstruation with pain
- Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation